In 2007, the General Assembly enacted the Property Tax Freeze Act, T.C.A. § 67-5-705. The act authorizes the county legislative body, by resolution, to adopt the property tax freeze program according to the statute. The county legislative body is also authorized to terminate the tax freeze program by resolution, but the resolution terminating the program cannot have the effect of terminating the program until the following tax year.
In counties that have adopted the property tax freeze, taxpayers apply annually to the collecting official (county trustee) by the deadline established in the program rules, and applicants must qualify on the basis of age, income and ownership of eligible property. The trustee determines whether requirements for eligibility have been met, and the trustee's determination is final, subject to audit and recovery of taxes, including penalty and interest at the rates provided for delinquent taxes under T.C.A. § 67-5-2010, if the applicant is later determined to have not been eligible. Any taxpayer who knowingly provides false information concerning the taxpayer's income or other information relative to eligibility for such program commits a Class A misdemeanor.
Once the trustee approves the application, property taxes due upon the applicant's principal residence shall be the lesser of: (1) the actual tax due; or (2) the base tax, provided the base tax shall be adjusted to reflect any percentage increase in the value of the property determined by the assessor to be attributed to improvements made or discovered after the time the base tax was established. The base tax shall be recalculated in any year in which the actual tax due is less than the previously established base tax for the property, and the recalculated base tax shall apply until further recalculated. "Base tax" is defined as the property tax due on the principal residence of a qualifying taxpayer at the time the jurisdiction levying the tax adopts a resolution approving the property tax freeze; provided, however, if the taxpayer did not qualify or did not own an eligible residence when the freeze was adopted, "base tax" means the maximum property tax due on the taxpayer's eligible residence for the year in which the taxpayer became eligible on the basis of an approved application. If a taxpayer reapplies after acquiring a new residence or after a period of ineligibility, the base tax shall be recalculated for the year of reapplication and reestablishment of eligibility.
To qualify for the property tax freeze, the applicant must be sixty-five (65) years of age by the end of the year in which the application is filed. The applicant must own and use the property as the applicant's principal residence for which the tax freeze is sought in the year of application or reapplication and through the deadline date for application or reapplication. The tax freeze only applies to the principal residence and no more than the maximum limit for land established by state rules. The state rules establish the maximum size limits for land which may qualify as a taxpayer's principal residence. The rules are to take into consideration lot size requirements under applicable zoning as well as property actually used to support residential structures; provided, however, the size limit cannot exceed five acres.
In addition to the qualifications stated in above, the applicant's income, combined with the income of any other owners of the property, the income of the applicant's spouse, and the income of any owners of a remainder or reversion in the property who used the property as their principal place of residence at any time during the year may not exceed the income limit set forth in the act. Income for purposes of qualification means income from all sources as defined by the program rules. The act provides that the income limit for the property tax freeze program shall be the greater of weighted average of the median household income for age groups sixty-five to seventy-four, and seventy-five or over, who resided within the county as determined in the most recent federal decennial census, or the applicable state tax relief income limit established under T.C.A. § 67-5-702. This limit is to be adjusted by the comptroller to reflect the cost of living adjustment for social security recipients as determined by the social security administration and shall be rounded to the nearest ten dollars. The adjusted weighted average median household income level for each county shall be published annually by the comptroller. The comptroller is authorized to perform income verification or other related services or assistance at the request of a county or municipality if the county or municipality agrees to pay fees sufficient to reimburse the actual costs of the comptroller in providing such services or assistance, unless or to the extent not appropriated by the General Assembly. Financial records filed for purposes of income verification are declared to be confidential and not subject to inspection under the Tennessee public records act, but are to be made available to local or state officials who administer or enforce the provisions of the law.
The property tax freeze program is subject to any uniform definitions, application forms and requirements, income verification procedures and other necessary or desirable rules, regulations, policies and procedures, not in conflict with the terms of the act, as may be adopted by the State Board of Equalization through the Division of Property Assessments.